On approaching the miqat (the place fixed for taking on ihram), a pilgrim should trim his moustache, cut short his hair, clip his finger nails, and take a bath or make ablution, wear some perfume, and then don the ihram. He should offer a two rak’ah prayer, and then declare his or her intention to perform Hajj, or Hajj and ‘Umrah, or ‘Umrah only, as the case may be.
Wearing ihram and declaring intention for Hajj or ‘Umrah is an essential part of both, and neither will be correct without these.
Specifying the kind of Hajj, whether it is if rad (Hajj only), tamattu’ (Hajj and ‘Umrah combined with a break in between), or qiran (Hajj and ‘Umrah without a break), is not essential. If someone makes an intention of performing Hajj without specifying the kind, his ihram will still be valid, and he may perform any of the three kinds of Hajj.
As soon as he enters the state of ihram a pilgrim must utter talbiyah loudly, whenever he climbs a hill or goes down a valley, meets a group or a person, early in the morning, and after every prescribed prayer.
When in a state of ihram, a person must avoid sexual intercourse and all things that lead to it; he must avoid wrangling and useless bickering, nor must he marry or join others in marriage.
A muhrim must not wear any sewn clothes or shoes that cover his feet above his ankles. He must not cover his head, nor use any perfume, nor cut his hair or nails, nor engage in hunting any game, nor cut trees or grass within the Sacred Precincts of Haram.: Repeated Performance of ‘Umrah
When entering Makkah it is desirable that a pilgrim enter from its high iide. if possible. atter taking a bath at the Zhi Tawa well in Zahir. Then he should go to the Ka bah and enter the Sacred Mosque from the gate called Bab As-Salam, while uttering supplications of entry into the mosques and observing other etiquette of entry with humility, fear, and talbiyah on his tongue.
On seeing the Ka’bah, he should raise his hands and supplicate to Allah for His bounties. Then he should directly proceed to the Black Stone, kiss it quietly or touch it with his hand and kiss the hand. If this is not possible and one cannot reach the Black Stone, one may just point toward it from a distance.
After this one should begin his tawaf around the Ka’bah supplicating in words transmitted from the Prophet (peace be upon him).
In the first three rounds it is liked that the (male) pilgrim uncover his right shoulder and jog at a slow pace. In the remaining rounds he may walk at a normal pace. It is sunnah to touch in every round the Yemeni Corner and to kiss the Black Stone. After completing (seven rounds of) the tawaf the pilgrim should go to the Station of Ibrahim in compliance with the command of Allah “And take the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer.” (Qur’an 2.125) There he should pray two rak’ahs of tawaf.
Now he should go to the well of Zamzam and drink of its water as much as possible. Thereafter the pilgrim goes to Al-Multazim and stands there and supplicates for himself to Allah for whatever good he may wish for in this world and the hereafter. After this he should (if possible) go to the Black Stone, and kiss it.
Then he should approach the (hill of) Safa through the As-Safa gate to begin his Sa’i in compliance with Allah’s words “Behold! Safa and Marwah are among the symbols of Allah. So if those who visit the House in the season or at other times. should compass them, it is no sin.” (Qur’an 2.158) He should climb the Safa, look towards Ka’bah. and then make supplication to Allah, using one transmitted from the Prophet (peace be upon him). After this he should climb down and start walking toward the (hill of) Al-Marwah as a start of his seven round walk between the two hills, while remembering Allah and supplicating to Him.
On approaching one of the two green markers, he should jog to the second green marker. And after that he should resume his normal walking speed toward Al-Marwah. Upon reaching Al-Marwah he should climb it, turn toward Ka’bah, and make supplications and glorify Allah. This will complete his one round. Then he should make the remaining six rounds in like manner, completing all seven rounds.
This Sa’i is an essential (wajib) ritual of Hajj, and any pilgrim failing to perform it or a part of it must slaughter an animal to atone for this omission. Finally, if he is performing a Hajj Tamattu’ (Hajj with an ‘Umrah with a break between the two), he should either shave olf his head or trim his hair short. This would release him of all the restrictions of the state of ihram, and all things that were prohibited to him in that state become permissible for him, including sexual intercourse with his wife.
Those who intend to perform a Hajj Ifrad (Hajj only) or Hajj Qiran (Hajj and ‘Umrah together without a break) they must continue in the state of ihram. On the 8th of Zhul-Hijjah those intending to perform Hajj Tamattu’ will once more resume ihram from their residences and proceed to Mina, along with those who had continued in a state of ihram, and spend the night there.
At sunrise of the 9th of Zhul-Hijjah the pilgrims leave for Arafah, and (if possible) stay by the Mosque of Namira. There they take a bath and offer Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers, making Qasr (shortening the prayers) and combining them at the earliest time behind an imam. If this is not possible then one may pray alone, as best as one can, combining and shortening the two prayers.
Pilgrims’ stay at Arafah begins only after the sun has passed its zenith. During this time one should stand by the rocks (of Arafah) or as close as possible, because this is where the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to take his stand. Staying at Arafah is the principal rite of Hajj, but climbing the Mount of Mercy is neither a sunnah nor should it be attempted.
During this stay one should face the direction of Qiblah, glorify Allah and remember Him, and supplicate to Him as much as possible until nightfall.
After nightfall the pilgrims must leave for Muzdalifah, and reaching there, offer Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers, combining them and offering them toward the end of the usual time, and then spend the night there.
At dawn the pilgrims stand by Al-Mash’ar al Haram (the Sacred Monument), and remember and glorify Allah until it is broad daylight. Thereafter they should return to Mina after picking up their pebbles from Muzdalifah.
Standing by the Sacred Monument is essential (wajib), and anyone failing to do so is required to offer a sacrifice in atonement.
After the sunrise, a pilgrim must throw seven pebbles at Jamarah Al-Aqabah. Then he should slaughter his sacrificial animal, if possible, shave off or cut his hair short. This will release him from the restrictions of ihram. and he may engage in any normal activity except sexual intercourse with his wife.
He must then return to Makkah to perform Tawaf Al-Itadah an essential part of Hajj, and also known as Tawaf Az-Ziyarah. He should perform it in the same manner as he had earlier performed Tawaf Al-Qudum. If the pilgrim is performing Hajj Tamattu’, he must perform a Sa’i after this Tawaf Al-Ifadah. For a pilgrim performing Hajj Qiran or Ifrad, this second Sa’i is not essential, if on arriving in Makkah he had performed a Tawaf Al-Qudum.
After this tawaf – Tawaf-Al-Ifadah – a pilgrim may engage in all normal lawful activities including sexual intercourse with his wife.
The pilgrim must now return to Mina and stay overnight there. This overnight stay at Mina is essential and for abandoning it one must atone by offering a sacrifice.
After midday on the 11th of Zhul-Hijjah, the pilgrim must throw pebbles at the three Jamarahs, starting with the one nearest to Mina, then the middle one, and stand for a while invoking and supplicating to Allah. Then he should go to the last Jamarah, throw pebbles at it, and leave without stopping there. A pilgrim should finish throwing pebbles at the three Jamarahs well before the sunset. On the 12th of Zhul-Hijjah he should repeat the rites of the previous day.
Having thrown the pebbles a pilgrim is free either to return to Makkah before the sunset of the 12th of Zhul-Hijjah, or spend the 13th of Zhul-Hijjah as well in Mina, and throw pebbles at the Jamarahs.
Throwing pebbles is an essential rite of Hajj and for failing to do so one must offer a sacrifice.
After returning to Makkah if the pilgrim desires to return to his home country he must perform TawafAI-Wida’ or Farewell Tawaf, which is also an essential rite of Hajj. In case he is unable to perform it, and if he has not crossed the miqat, he should return to Makkah and perform it, or else sacrifice a sheep.
In short, the essential rites of Hajj and ‘Umrah are: declaring ihram from miqat, tawaf, Sa’i, halq (shaving one’ s hair) or qasr (or cutting one’ s hair short). With these the rituals of ‘Umrah are completed.
In the case of Hajj one has to perform certain additional rites. The essential rites of Hajj are spending a Day at Arafah, throwing pebbles at Jamarahs, Tawaf Al-Ifadah, staying in Mina, slaughtering an animal, shaving or cutting one’s hair short. This is a brief summary of all the rites of Hajj and ‘Umrah.