‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar Radiyallahu ‘Anhu reports: “In the time of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam there once occurred a solar eclipse (According to the majority of the ‘ulama this incident took place in the tenth year hijri). Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam went into the masjid, commenced salaah, and stood in qiyaam for so long that it was felt that he did not intend to perform the ruku’. (In another narration it is stated that he recited the Surah Baqarah.) He then performed such a long ruku as if he did not want to come up from the Ruku’. Then in the same manner after standing up from the ruku’ he stood up for such a long time as if he did not want to perform sajdah, here too he kept his mubaarak head on the ground for such a long time as if he was not going to lift his mubaarak head. In this manner he did the same after lifting the head and sitting in jalsa, and after the jalsa in the second sajdah.In short, in every rukn of the salaah this was done, that every rukn was so long, as if this rukn was going to be performed till the end, and there is nothing after it. (In the same manner he performed the second rak’ah, and in the last sajdah), due to the intense fear he began taking heavy breaths and crying, and began pleading to the Almighty Allah that ‘O Allah, it is only You that have promised that when these people make istighfaar there will be no punishment’. This saying of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam refers to the aayah that is at the end of the ninth juz: ”But Allah would not punish them while thou was with them, nor will He punish them while they seek forgiveness. – Surah Al-Anfaal, 33.
When Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam completed the salaah, the sun had cleared already. Rasulullah Sallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam delivered a sermon after this. After uttering the hamd and thanaa, he talked o this subject, that the sun and moon does not eclipse because of the death or birth of anyone, but both are from among the signs of Allah Ta’aala. (That gives His creation a warning so that they may fear Him). When the eclipses occurs then immediately turn towards Allah (begin istighfaar and performing salaah)”.
The reason for delivering this sermon was that in the days of jaahiliyyah it was a general understanding that the eclipse of the sun and moon were due to the death or birth of a great personality. Coincidently it so happened that when Sayyidina Ebrahim Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, the son of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam passed away, an eclipse took place. Therefore this nurtured the view held during the days of jaahiliyyah. People began saying that the eclipse was the result of the death of Sayyidina Ebrahim Radiyallahu ‘Anhu. The a-immah differ in that during the solar eclipse should one or more than one ruku’ be performed in one rak’ah. The Hanafis say that only one ruku’ should be performed (in one rak’ah). This hadith strengthens their view. However scholarly differences and the proofs of the opposing schools are not relevant here.