Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 5, Hajj and ‘Umrah, Fiqh 5.049.

Section : Restrictions of Ihram.

The Law Giver forbids certain things for a muhrim after he dons the ihram garb:

1. Sexual intercourse and all matters leading to it such as kissing, touching, or talking with one’s wife about intercourse or related matters.

2. Committing sins that cause a man to deviate from the path of obedience to Allah.

3. Disputing, arguing or fighting with companions, servants or others.

The basis of this prohibition are the words of Allah: “Let there be no obscenity nor wickedness nor wrangling in the Hajj” (Qur’an 2.197). Both Bukhari and Muslim reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “He who performs Hajj, committing no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling, will return home free of sins as the day his mother bore him.”

4. Wearing any sewn clothes, such as a shirt, hooded robes, cloak, underpants or wrapping anything around the head, a cap or a fez, etc. Likewise one is not permitted to wear clothes dyed with a nice fragrant dye or to wear shoes or sewn slippers.

Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “A person in a state of ihram is not allowed to wear a sewn shirt, a turban, a hooded robe, underpants, a cloth that has been dyed with sweet smelling fragrance (such as saffron), shoes or sewn slippers, unless one is unable to find regular unsown slippers, then one may wear his shoes provided one cuts them down to the ankles.” This was reported by Bukhari and Muslim. There is agreement among the scholars that these restrictions apply to men only.

As for a woman pilgrim, she may wear all of the above. But she is forbidden to use perfumed clothes, a veil that covers the face, and gloves.

Ibn ‘Umar reported: “Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) forbade women pilgrims from wearing gloves, veils, and clothes dyed with saffron or warse. (A sweet smelling plant that was used to dye clothes yellow) Besides these, they may wear anything else, any colour, silk clothes, ornaments, trousers, or a shirt or shoes.” (Reported by Abu Daw’ud, Al-Baihaqi and Al-Hakim, with a sound chain of authorities)

Bukhari reported that ‘Aishah wore a dress that was dyed with ‘usfur (Usfur: safflower, the red dyestuff prepared from its flower heads) while she was in a state of ihram, and she said: “A woman must neither wear a veil to cover her face, nor wear clothes that are dyed with saffron or other fragrant dyeing material.” Jabir said: “I do not consider ‘usfur a scent.”

‘Aishah held that there is no harm for women pilgrims in wearing ornaments, black or rose-colored clothes and shoes.

Bukhari and Ahmad have reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “A pilgrim woman must neither cover her face nor wear gloves.” This proves that a woman in the state of ihram should not cover her face and hands. The scholars, however, say that there is no harm if she covered her face with something other than a veil. She may also use an umbrella or similar item as a screen between men and herself. But if she is afraid of tempting others she must cover her face.

‘Aishah said: “Men on camels used to pass by us while we were with the Prophet (peace be upon him) and in the state of ihram. We would cover our faces with our gowns when they passed by us, and then uncover them again.” This is reported by Abu Daw’ud and Ibn Majah. ‘Ata, Malik, AthThawri, Ash-Shafi’i, Ahmad, and Ishaq hold that it permissible for women to cover their faces in the state of ihram.