1. Abu Qatadah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: “Fasting on the day of ‘Arafah is an expiation for two years, the year preceding it and the year following it. Fasting the day of ‘Ashurah is an expiation for the year preceding it.” This is related by “the group,” except for al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.
2. Hafsah reported: “There are five things that the Prophet never abandoned: fasting the day of ‘Ashurah, fasting the [first] ten [days of Zhul-Hijjah], fasting three days of every month and praying two rak’ah before the dawn prayer.” This is related by Ahmad and an-Nasa’i.
3. ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah said: “The day of ‘Arafah, the day of sacrifice, and the days of tashreeq are ‘ids for us – the people of Islam – and they are days of eating and drinking.” This is related by “the five,” except for Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi grades it sahih.
4. Abu Hurairah stated: “The Messenger of Allah forbade fasting on the day of ‘Arafah for one who is actually at ‘Arafah.” This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa’i, and Ibn Majah.
At-Tirmizhi comments: “The scholars prefer that the day of ‘Arafah be fasted unless one is actually at ‘Arafah.”
5. Umm al-Fadl said: “The people were in doubt over whether or not the Prophet was fasting on the day of ‘Arafah. I sent him some milk, and he drank it while he was delivering an address to the people at ‘Arafah.” This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, sent a person to announce: “Do not fast on these days, as they are days of eating, drinking and rejoicing with one’s family.” At-Tabarani related it in al-‘Awsat.