Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 2, Supererogatory Prayer, Fiqh 2.132.

Section : The Time of the Salatul Jumu’ah.

The majority of the companions and successors were of the opinion that the time of al-Jumu’ah is the same as that of the zuhr. Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and alBaihaqi record from Anas that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray al-Jumu’ah when the sun had passed its meridian. Ahmad and Muslim record that Salamah ibn al-Akua’ said: “We would pray salatul Jumu’ah with the Prophet when the sun had passed the meridian, and when we returned [from the salah], we would be following our shadow.” Al-Bukhari says: “The time of al-Jumu’ah is when the sun passes its meridian.” Similar narrations have been recorded from ‘Umar, ‘Ali, an-Nu’man ibn Bashir, and ‘Umar ibn Harith. Ash-Shaf’i says: “The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and the imams after them all prayed the Jumu’ah when the sun had passed its zenith.”

The scholars of the Hanbali school and Ishaq are of the opinion that the time for al-Jumu’ah is from the beginning of the time for salatul ‘id to the end of the time for the zuhr. They base their opinion on Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa’i who record from Jabir: “The Prophet would pray alJumu’ah and then we would take our camels to rest until the sun passed its zenith.” This hadith clearly states that they prayed al-Jumu’ah before the sun passed the meridian. They also cited as proof the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn Saidan as-Salmi who said: “We prayed al-Jumu’ah with Abu Bakr, and his khutbah and salah were before noon. Then we prayed with ‘Uthman and his khutbah and salah lasted until after the sun had passed the meridian, and no one scolded either for it.” This is related by Ahmad, who cites it as a proof, and by ad-Daraqutni. Ahmad adds: “And [something] similar to that has been related from ibn Mas’ud, Jabir, Sa’id, and Mu’awiyyah. They all prayed before the sun passed the meridian and no one objected to what they did, and that was the consensus. The majority of the scholars, however, interpret the hadith of Jabir as implying that one should pray the salah early in its time, when the sun has passed the meridian, and not wait until the weather gets cool. The prayer and the resting of the camels was right after the sun passed the meridian. As to the report from ‘Abdullah ibn Saidan, these scholars consider it weak. Ibn Hajar writes about him: ‘He is one of the major tabi’in [i.e., of the generation after the companions], and his integrity is not well-established. ‘Adi says: “He is somewhat majhul, i.e. unknown as a trustworthy person.” Bukhari observes. “His report is not to be trusted, especially when he is contradicted by people who are more credible (qawi) than him as Ibn abi Shaibah relates from Suwaid ibn Ghaflah that the later prayed with Abu Bakr and ‘Umar after the sun had passed the meridian and its chain is strong. “‘