The scholars are in agreement that salatul Jumu’ah is an individual obligation and it is two rak’at. Allah says in the Qur’an: “O you who believe, when the call for the salah of Jumu’ah is proclaimed, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and trading). That is best for you if you but knew.”
The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu’ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: “We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow.”
Ibn Mas’ud reports that the Prophet noticed some people staying away from al-Jumu’ah and said: “I had the notion to order someone to lead the people in prayer, and then to go and burn the houses of those who stayed away from al-Jumu’ah.” This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Abu Hurairah and Ibn ‘Umar report that they heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam say: “Those who are not attending the Friday salah should change their ways; otherwise, Allah, the Exalted, will seal their hearts and they will be reckoned the heedless.” This is related by Muslim, and by Ahmad and an-Nasa’i from ibn ‘Umar and ibn ‘Abbas.
Abu al-Ja’d ad-Damari reports that the Prophet said: “Whoever misses three Friday prayers in a row out of negligence will have a seal put over his heart by Allah.” This is related by the five, and Ahmad and Ibn Majah have something similar from Jabir, while Ibn as-Sakin has graded it to be sahih.