Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.108A.

Section : The Fast of Ramadan.The fast of Ramadan, according to the Qur'an, sunnah and consensus, is obligatory.The evidence from the Qur'an consists of the following two verses: "O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for the people before you in order for you to gain God consciousness, and, … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.108A.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.109.

Section : The Virtues of Ramadan and the Deeds Done During It.Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "The blessed month has come to you. Allah has made fasting during it obligatory upon you. During it, the gates to Paradise are opened and the gates to hellfire are locked, and the … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.109.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.110.

Section : The Consequence of Breaking the Fast of Ramadan.Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet said: "The bare essence of Islam and the basics of the religion are three [acts], upon which Islam has been established. Whoever leaves one of them becomes an unbeliever and his blood may legally be spilled. [The acts are:] Testifying … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.110.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.111.

Section : The Arrival of Ramadan.This event is confirmed by sighting the new moon, even if it is seen by only one just person, or by the passage of thirty days in the immediately preceding month of Sha'ban.Ibn 'Umar said: "The people were looking for the new moon and when I reported to the Messenger … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.111.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.112.

Section : Different Locations.According to the majority of scholars, it does not matter if the new moon has been sighted in a different location. In other words, after the new moon is seen anywhere in the world, it becomes obligatory for all Muslims to begin fasting, as the Prophet said: "Fast due to its sighting … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.112.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.113B.

Section : Essential elements of fasting, abstaining from acts that break the fast.This point is based on the Qur'anic verse: "Eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct to you from the black thread of the dawn. Then strictly observe the fast until nightfall."This is also based on the following hadith: "When the verse … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.113B.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.113C.

Section : Essential elements of fasting, the intention.Allah instructs in the Qur'an: "And they are ordained nothing else than to serve Allah, keeping religion pure for Him." The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Actions are judged according to the intention behind them, and for everyone is what he intended."The intention must be made before … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.113C.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.114.

Section : Essential elements of fasting, who must fast.All scholars agree that fasting is obligatory upon every sane, adult, healthy Muslim male who is not travelling at that time. As for a woman, she must not be menstruating or having post-childbirth bleeding. People who are insane, minors, and those who are travelling, menstruating, or going … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.114.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.114A.

Section : Essential elements of fasting, the fast of the insane.Fasting is not obligatory for the insane because of their inability to understand what they are doing. 'Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "The pen is raised for three groups [of people] - that is, they will not be responsible for … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.114A.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.114B.

Section : Essential elements of fasting, the fast of the young [non-adults].Though the young are not required to fast, it is proper for their guardians to encourage them to fast so they will become accustomed to it at an early age. They may fast as long as they are able to and then may break … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.114B.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.115.

Section : Essential elements of fasting, those who are permitted to break the fast, but who must pay a "ransom" for not fasting.Elderly men and women are permitted to break their fasts, as are the chronically ill, and those who have to perform difficult jobs under harsh circumstances and who could not find any other … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.115.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.116.

Section : Making up the Missed Days of Fasting.It is allowed for those who are (not chronically) ill and for travellers to break their fasts during Ramadan, but they must make up the days they missed. Allah says in the Qur'an: "And [for] him who is sick among you or on a journey, [the same] … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.116.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.120.

Section : Those who must make up the missed days.The scholars agree that it is obligatory for menstruating women and women with post-childbirth bleeding to break the fast and to make up the missed days later on. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that 'Aishah said: "When we would have our menses during the lifetime of the … Continue reading Fiqh-us-Sunnah Volume 3, Zakaat and Fasting, Fiqh 3.120.