The rulings of shari`ah for all our daily actions are five : prescribed, recommended, permissible, disliked and unlawful . The distinctions between the five categories are in whether their performance (P) and nonperformance (NP) is rewarded, not rewarded, punished or not punished (see the table). The prescribed (fard) is also referred to as obligatory (wajib), mandatory (muhattam) and required (lazim). It is divided into two categories :
Personally obligatory (fard al-'ayn), which is required from every individual Muslim (e.g. salah and zakah); and communally obligatory (fard al- kifaya), which if performed by some Muslims is not required from others (e.g., funeral prayers).
The recomended (mandub) is also referred to as sunnah, preferable (mustahabb), meritorious (fadila), and desirable (marghub fih). Examples are night vigil (tahajjud) prayers, and rememberance of Allah (zikr).
The performance and nonperformance of the permissible/ allowed (mubah) is neither rewarded nor punished.
Nonperformance of both the disliked (makruh) and the unlawful/prohibited (haram) is rewarded. Performance of the unlawful is punished, but that of the disliked is not punished. Â